Medical Ozone Treats Lyme Disease and MSIDS



The information on this website is presented for educational purposes only. It is not intended as a substitute for the diagnosis, treatment, or advice of a qualified, licensed medical professional. The facts presented are offered as information only, not medical advice, and in no way should anyone infer that we are practicing medicine. Seek the advice of a medical professional for proper application of this material to any specific situation.

Medical Ozone Therapy Information: Dr Shallenberger




Hope ozone generator

Contact us to purchase this equipment:



Special headphones for insufflation into the ears.







Chronic Lyme disease and MSIDS: These chronic infections demonstrate the inability of the patient’s immune system to defend itself against some bacteria, fungi and viruses. 
These include Hepatitus B & C, Epstein-Barr virus, Cytomegalovirus, HIV, mycoplasma, tuberculosis, coxsackie virus, yeast, Borrelia (Lyme disease) and others.

These infections often respond to ozone therapy as ozone stimulates the immune system by as much as 400% to produce the cytokine molecules that it uses to fight infections.

The treatment protocol for any infection is ozone insufflation into the ears with a special headphone that we developed and/or rectal insufflation twice a day until the infection resolves and then three times a week for an additional 6 weeks to prevent a recurrence.
 Ozone Therapy is a medical therapy that has been used worldwide for over 50 years with dramatic success and safety.  It is clear that Ozone Therapy works, and it is becoming one of the most useful tools in medical clinics around the World.

What does it do? To briefly summarize, ozone accomplishes these very important tasks in your body:

1/ Ozone is AntiAging (some of those AntiAging effects can be attributed to the following list of actions…)
2/ Ozone Increases Oxygenation of your Cells (it has been proven that cancer and disease grow in poorly oxygenated tissues in your body).
3/ Ozone Modulates your Immune System (for those with a weakened immune system, Ozone will boost the immune system. For those with Auto-Immune Disorders, Ozone will modulate the immune system to help to stop it from attacking healthy human cells.)
4/ Ozone Increases Energy Production in your Cells (your cells need energy to be healthy; low energy levels mean that you and your cells will not be healthy and will age)
5/ Ozone Increases the Activity of your “Anti-Oxidant Enzyme Systems”. This means ozone will reduce the oxidation levels of your body.
6/ Ozone Reduces the level of acidity of your body (never mind the Alkaline Water…use Ozone!)
7/ Ozone kills Bacteria, Viruses (and virtually all other disease causing organisms) on contact
8/ Ozone Kills some Cancer cells on contact

Ozone Protocols:

This article is a quick review of the most popular Ozone Therapy Application Methods. If you are curious as to how to use ozone, here is a list of the most popular ways to use it (step by step).

The following article was written with specific reference to the International Ozone Therapy Standards and according to International Ozone Therapy experts is a record of the safest and most effective way to perform these application methods.

Before Attempting any of these Ozone Therapy Protocols please read this:

1/ You MUST ensure that the ozone generator you are using was designed to produce very pure ozone that is free from any contaminants. Many manufacturers will claim that their ozone generators are suitable for “Medical Ozone Therapy”. Unfortunately it is usually not true. It is extremely important that you make sure you have an ozone generator that produces medical ozone.Never use an Air Purifier or simple little ozone generator made for washing vegetables to perform these ozone therapy protocols.

2/ You must make sure that the ozone generator makes the ozone from pure oxygen, not air. If there is no oxygen tank with your ozone generator, then don’t use it. The ozone won’t be the proper concentration and the ozone will not be pure enough to use for Ozone Therapy.

3/ You need to be able to adjust the ozone output concentration of the ozone, or the ‘strength’ of the ozone, because these Ozone Therapy Protocols all use slightly different ozone concentrations. If you can’t adjust the ozone concentration of the ozone generator, or if you don’t have a chart that shows you the concentrations of ozone that are being produced then don’t use it for these protocols.

4/ Please Note: It is noted in the literature that all individuals using ozone therapy should also ensure adequate amounts of Vitamins B (complex), C, E, A, (& Beta Carotene), Zinc, Selenium, and some have recommended N-acetyl-Cysteine, and Copper. Please ensure that you take these supplements either a minimum of 6 hours before using ozone, or at least 1 hour after using ozone).

Rectal Insufflation: 

As the name suggests, “Rectal Insufflation” refers to introducing ozone into the body through the rectum. If you are new to ozone, this sounds like a very strange thing to do. However, oxygen (O2) has been infused rectally during surgery for years, due to the fact that oxygen is easily absorbed through the walls of the colon. The same is true for ozone (O3). Rectal Ozone Insufflation is performed regularly in clinics worldwide, and can also be performed in the home. There are many advantages to using Rectal Ozone Insufflation over all other ozone administration methods:

1/ Ozone experts around the world* believe that Rectal Ozone Insufflation is “95% as effective as Major Autohemotherapy”, which is the most accepted ‘blood’ method of introducing ozone into the body. (*Renate Viebahn (Germany), Dr. Robert Rowen (USA), Dr. Frank Shallenberger MD (USA), Silvia Menendez (Cuba).

2/ Rectal insufflation is painless and a minimally invasive way to use ozone in your home that is just as effective as the blood methods but requires no needles, no syringes, no discomfort.

3/ Rectal Insufflation requires only 30 minutes of your time..

4/ Rectal Insufflation can be performed by the average ‘home owner’ and eliminates the need of the patient to constantly visit the physician. (It is highly recommended that you seek the guidance and professional care of an Ozone Doctor, who can assess your situation, prescribe suitable therapies, and monitor your condition as you take part in the prescribed therapies).

Rectal Insufflation: Directly from the Ozone Generator 

1/ Make sure your oxygen tank is full of oxygen. Most companies send oxygen tanks that are empty. If your oxygen tank is not full, check your yellow pages for a company that can fill it for you.

2/ If your oxygen regulator is not yet on your oxygen tank, attach it now. When you have completed this task make sure your oxygen regulator is attached securely to your oxygen tank. Keep in mind that you are dealing with a high pressure gas (the oxygen) so if you don’t have the regulator attached properly, it will leak when you turn the oxygen on. If it leaks, you will hear a ‘hissing’ sound. Don’t turn on your oxygen flow yet.

3/ Attach the oxygen line from your oxygen regulator to your ozone generator. Various companies use different types of connectors to make this connection. If you have purchased your oxygen tank from one company, and the ozone generator from another company, make sure you can connect the two together (the seal must be tight to prevent leaking). Make sure you connect the oxygen to the oxygen ‘in’ and not the ozone ‘out’ connection.

4/ Attach tubing to the ozone output of the ozone generator so you can get a comfortable distance away from the ozone generator. The tubing you are using must resist ozone. Silicon is a good choice.

5/ Now it’s time to set the ozone generator. Refer to the ozone chart or graph that you received with your ozone generator. This is the guide that they should have provided to you that shows you how much ozone the ozone generator produces. If you don’t have one, ask the manufacturer to send you one. (If they don’t have one, don’t use your ozone generator for any Ozone Therapy protocols. You must know what the concentration of the ozone is that the ozone generator is producing and you won’t unless you have a chart or graph).

6/ Look at the ozone output guide, graph, or chart to find out where 30 – 45 ug/ml of ozone will be produced. Hopefully it will be at a flow rate of around 1/8 or 1/4 Liters Per Minute (LPM) of oxygen as these are the easiest flow rates to use. (Don’t turn on the oxygen yet).

7/ If your ozone generator has a “energy” selector on it, or a dial, and make note of the dial to the setting that will produce 30 – 45 ug/ml of ozone. Set the dial to this setting now, but don’t turn on your ozone generator yet. (The dial setting information should be displayed on your Ozone Output Chart or Graph. If you don’t have a dial on your ozone generator, don’t worry. Just make sure that the ‘flow rate’ that you have set in step 6 will product the proper ozone concentration of 30 – 45 ug/ml).

8/ Take your catheter and have a look at it. One end will have holes in it and a rounded tip. This is the end that you are going to insert rectally. The other end will have a connector on it, this is the end that you connect to the ozone tubing that comes from the ozone generator. Make sure that this connection will form a tight seal, because if it does not, the ozone will simply leak at this connection instead of going into you. If the seal is not tight, call the company you purchased the equipment from for advice. Some companies provide a ‘catheter adapter’ that will make sure the seal is tight. If you have one, use it. A second catheter to allow the escape of excess ozone is taped to the first catheter used for ozone into the rectum. This is taped so that it is further out of the rectum when inserted.

9/ Lubricate 3 to 4 inches of the ends you are going to insert with olive oil. (Do not use any petroleum jelly or other petroleum lubrication products!). Insert the tube 3 – 4 inches slowly and carefully until you feel resistance. If you feel any pain or discomfort, stop. Tape the catheters to the skin outside the rectum. DO NOT connect the catheter yet to the ozone generator.

10/ Now you are ready to start the Rectal Insufflation:

(a) You will first need to start the flow of oxygen from the oxygen tank. To do this you will need to open two valves. The first valve is on the top of the tank. Open this valve first by turning it counter clockwise as you look at it from above, just like opening a jar or bottle. Next, open the other valve which is usually the flow selector valve and set it to 1/4 LPM.
(b) Turn on your ozone generator. When you do this, you will be making ozone.
(c) You need to make sure that ozone is coming out of the end of the tubing before you connect the tubing to the catheter. Most people will wait until they smell ozone coming from the end of the tubing. If you are going to do this hold the end of the tubing well away from your nose and mouth, and take small ‘snifs’. Ozone can be very irritating if you inhale a lot of it. Alternatively ozone will burn a hole in a latex surgical glove.
(d) When you smell ozone or burn a hole in the glove, note the time and connect the tube to the catheter.  Start treatments with 5 minutes and build up to 15 minute treatments over 10 days.

If there is a blockage of the out catheter the patient will experience pressure in the abdomen and treatment must be stopped.

(f) Once the time is up, remove the catheters.
(g) Disconnect the cathters from the tubing.
(h) Turn off the ozone generator.
(i) Turn off the oxygen flow at the regulator and at the oxygen tank.
(j) Discard the catheters.


(1) How Long do I have to hold the ozone?
The answer? You don’t have to hold the ozone. Cuban scientists have recently proven that the ozone is completely absorbed and reacts with the tissue in the colon immediately upon entry into the rectum and colon. Years ago it was thought that you had to hold the ozone for 20 minutes. You may still find this ‘holding time’ written in instructions all over the internet. The great news is, this has been proven to be NOT TRUE. If you need to let the ozone go shortly after you have infused it, let it go. You don’t have to do the insufflation again because the only thing you are releasing is oxygen, not ozone. As already stated, the ozone component of the gas was immediately absorbed by the body.

(2) When do I Do This?
Any time of day. Perform the procedure after a recent bowel movement. Some people may prefer to perform an enema or colonic before the insufflation, however this is not absolutely necessary.

(3) How Often? Never more than twice a day. A minimum of three times a week per week.

(4) What Concentration or Strength?
You must choose an ozone concentration setting on your ozone generator of 30 – 45 ug/ml or ‘micrograms per milliliter’. “Micrograms per milliliter” or “ug/ml” are the concentration terms used to discuss the strength of ozone that should be used for each ozone application method. You must ensure that you can control the ozone concentratration (or ‘strength’) produced by your ozone generator. Carefully review your ozone generator manual to discover how to do this. If you did not receive a manual with your ozone generator, if the manual does not provide you with information regarding the ozone output levels of your ozone generator, do not perform the insufflation. You must know the concentration of ozone that you are using, and this is only possible if the manufacturer has provided you with an Ozone Output guide.

(5) Can I Use and Air Fed Ozone Generator?
NO. Air fed ozone generators are for air purification only, and sometimes for light water purification. Air fed ozone generators are ‘industrial’ ozone generators. The ozone they produce is not pure enough for ozone therapy (the ozone has contaminants in it), and it is not strong enough for ozone therapy. Make sure you are using an ozone generator that requires pure oxygen to be fed into it.

(6) How Much Ozone? That is, What Volume?
You must be using an ozone generator that uses pure oxygen as a feed gas. The flow rate of oxygen should be set for 1/4, 1/8, or 1/16 Liter Per Minute; choose the flow rate that provides you with a concentration of 30 – 45 ug/ml. Never use an ozone generator that uses “air” for this procedure, as the ozone will not be the proper concentration, and the ozone will be contaminated with toxins and byproducts from the air. The speed that the oxygen enters the ozone generator is called the “flow rate” of oxygen. The flow rate will determine the concentration of ozone that the ozone generator produces. The ideal flow rate of oxygen to use for an insufflation is 1/4 lpm  (Liters per Minute), but only if your ozone generator produces 30 – 45 ug/ml of ozone at one of these flow rates. This is the reason you need an accurate chart or readout of the ozone concentrations the ozone generator produces. If you do not have a chart that clearly indicates the concentrations of ozone your ozone generator creates, do not perform the insufflation until you have this information.

I(7) Can I use Higher Concentrations of Ozone?

Only for a specific purpose (Bleeding Colitis). If your goal is to use ozone for detoxification and to boost the immune system make sure you are using 30 – 45 ug/ml. Do not increase the ozone concentration because you will not be increasing the effectiveness and will only cause irritation.

The only time this technique varies is if the desired outcome of the rectal insufflation is to stop the bleeding associated with “Bleeding Colitis”. In this case, the German standards indicate that the concentration of ozone should be 60ug/ml and the amount of ozone infused should only be 60cc. This higher ozone concentration will stop the bleeding, but will not heal the colon. Therefore the goal is to first stop the bleeding with the higher concentration (60ug/ml) and once stopped, the technique above is used to heal the affected parts of the colon. The basic guidelines are that ozone at higher concentrations (60 ug/ml) are used to stop bleeding and to sterilize. After this is accomplished the ozone concentration should be lowered to the levels known to cause healing, that is, 30 – 45 ug/ml.

Ozone Sauna

The benefits of a steam sauna on the immune system and disease processes have been well documented. In addition to being relaxing and soothing, a sauna and the accompanying induced hyperthermia on the body, mimics the beneficial effects of a fever, without the discomfort. At 104 degrees F., for example, the growth rate of the polio virus is reduced up to 250 times; at 106 degrees pneumococcus, a bacterium responsible for pneumonia, dies.

Although the effects of this artificial method of increasing the body temperature are not as comprehensive as a natural fever, there are definite system wide effects. There is evidence that artificial fever works as an immune system stimulant by increasing the number of white blood cells in the body. In a 1959-review of studies on the effects of heat treatments, Mayo Clinic researcher Dr. Wakim and colleagues cite findings indicating that the number of white blood cells in the blood increased by an average of 58% during artificially induced fever. Researchers also have found increases in the activity of the white blood cells during induced fever.

Apart from the immune system-stimulating effects of sweat therapy, many thought it as one of the most effective and painless detoxifying treatments available. Sweat contains almost the same elements as urine, and for this reason, the skin is sometimes called the third kidney. It is estimated that as much as 30% of bodily wastes are eliminated by way of perspiration, and during a steam sauna, the body perspires profusely.

By adding ozone into this environment, the ozone is easily absorbed into the skin and lymphatic system because of the open pores. This provides an excellent detoxifying effect and it is also reported that the effects are once again not limited to detoxification, but may induce the desirable system wide effects that is desired in the medical use of ozone: oxygenation of all the tissues, organs, and cells of the body, boosting the immune system, stimulation of the release of anti-cancer substances from the white blood cells of the immune system, enhancement of blood and oxygen delivery throughout the body.

It is very important to point out that the sauna used for this treatment is of the type where the individual’s head protrudes from the top of the sauna, and the individual is therefore not breathing the ozone / steam mixture. Concentrations used for this type of treatment are usually approximately 30 – 40ug/ml, and the ozone is introduced into the sauna at a rate of 1/4LPM.

Using the steam sauna is one of the most popular methods of taking advantage of this therapy. The steam sauna ozone system for applying ozone has many advantages:

(1) It is a relaxing and non-invasive approach to ozone therapy
(2) It cleanses the skin, pores, and lymphatic system
(3) The user will take advantage of 2 therapies at the same time: sweat therapy and ozone therapy (both individually with their own health benefits)
(4) You feel clean, refreshed, and rejuvenated.

Auricular Insufflations:

Many individuals have found it beneficial to irrigate the ear canal with the ozone / oxygen mixture from a medical ozone generator. As with every use of ozone for medical purposes the individual must ensure: the purity of the oxygen supply, that all parts of the ozone generator in contact with the gas stream are ozone resistant (eg. kynar, Teflon, glass, silicone), and that they know the ozone output (concentration of the ozone) of the ozone generator. This is extremely important – too little ozone and there will be no effect; too much ozone and there can be irritation to the ear canal.

The patient may first apply a small amount of water to the ear canal to assist in the absorption of the ozone. The ozone must be humidified by bubbling the gas through water. The usual concentration used for this protocol is 15ug/ml – 30ug/ml. The flow rate used is usually ¼ Litre per minute or perhaps 1/8 LPM.

The output tube of the ozone generator is held up to the entrance of the ear. At no time should the tube come into proximity of the eyes, nose, or mouth. Doing so may cause discomfort. At no time should the output tube be placed inside the ear, or sealed into the entrance way of the ear.
The ozone should be allowed to flow into the ear and out of the ear. Each ear is usually treated for 2-5 minutes per treatment.

Treatment schedule depends on the disease of the patient, and the effect on each individual patient. This therapy should not be performed more than once per day, and in most cases is performed 2-3 times per week.

Patients should individually modify the treatment protocol depending on their reaction. If any discomfort, redness, or “chapping” occurs, it is suggested that the patient increase the length of time between treatments, and decrease the ozone concentration coming from the ozone generator.

Many physicians have indicated that the ozone enters the lymphatic and blood system this way. Many patients have reported a wide variety of results including relief of allergies, relief of colds, clearing of sore throats and swollen glands.
Vaginal Insufflation:

A vaginal cannula is used to introduce the ozone gas to the patient. Unlike Rectal Insufflation, there is no danger of pressure buildup. The ozone concentration used is usually 25-30ug/ml, and the flow rate is usually 1/4LPM (litres per minute) or 1/8LPM. Treatment time is usually 5 – 15 minutes. The patient may lower the ozone concentration, and the duration of the treatment if any discomfort occurs. This treatment should not be performed more than once per day, and is usually only performed 2-3 times per week.

Many women have reported relief from yeast infections and various sexually transmitted diseases including herpes. Many women also use this method as an alternative to rectal insufflation as it is theorized that the ozone not only affects the pelvic region, but also enters the general circulation causing a body wide effect.

Women must not use this method close to, or during the time of menstruation as ozone at these concentrations increases blood flow.

Body Suit

One of the easiest and most pleasurable of the methods of using ozone, the body suit is both effective and relaxing. The ozone is absorbed through the skin, cleansing the lymphatic system, and reportedly inducing the body wide effects of ozone generally seen with other treatment protocols.

The patient first opens the pores of the skin by taking a warm/hot shower, after which they immediately enter the body suit.
The body suit must be sealed at the ankles and wrists to reduce leaking. Usually a towel is wrapped around the neck to increase comfort and to reduce leaking around the neck. If necessary, a fan may be used to gently blow any leaking ozone away from the individual. The ozone generator is set to produce a concentration of 25 – 35ug/ml at a flow rate of 1/4LPM.
The ozone must be humidified (run through water) and is introduced into the body suit.

The patient remains in the body suit for 15 – 40 minutes ( one usually starts with a 15 minute treatment and the treatment time remains that or is gradually increased depending on the desire and comfort of the individual during and after treatments). Treatment is usually individualized depending on the individual effects of the treatments and the desired effect, be it in treatment of a disease, or for general health. Individuals should be encouraged to use their own bodies and common sense as an indication of whether treatment times and concentrations should be increased or lowered. This treatment is usually performed 2-3 times per week, and never more than once per day.

Ozonated Olive Oil

Ozonated Olive Oil is used around the world for a variety of uses: acne, skin lesions, burns, fungal infections (eg. Of the toe nail), herpes, eczema, leg sores, bed sores, gingivitis, hemorrhoids, STD’s, cold sores, and many others.

This appears to be the only way to stabilize ozone without adding artificial stabilizers, chemicals, or preservatives. Ozone is bubbled at very high concentrations, under a controlled environment for days until it slowly begins to solidify. This solid form of olive oil forms a Vaseline or salve like substance and will keep for many months on the shelf. If kept refrigerated, it maintains its full effectiveness almost indefinitely.

Some individuals even choose to ingest ozonated olive oil in order to obtain the system wide effects of using ozone medically. Click here for instructions as to how to make ozonated olive oil.


“Bagging” with ozone refers to the method of isolating a body part by surrounding it with a bag (such as hand, arm, leg, foot, torso, pelvis, but NEVER head), and introducing ozone. This can be used to treat gangrene, diabetic foot ulcers, bed sores, burns, any wounds that are infected or slow healing, or those that refuse to heal. This method is not intended to generate an immune modulating effect on the individual as in the methods above.

The bag is placed around or over the affected area, the output tube from the ozone generator placed through the top of the bag, and the top sealed as effectively as possible. Ozone at the desired concentration must first be humidified (simply bubbled through water) and then enters the bag; the ozone generator constantly runs during this treatment. Treatment times vary depending on the type of wounds being treated but typically range from 10 – 30 minutes. As leaking will occur from the bag it is suggested that this process occurs in a well ventilated area. After the treatment the bag will still contain a high concentration of ozone, irritating to the lungs, nose, and eyes if it escapes from the bag. This is usually disposed of in a safe manner. (In European medical clinics, a specially designed bag is used to ensure no leaking occurs, and after treatment the ozone is sucked from the bag by a vacuum pump so neither the patient, nor the attendant ever breathes in the ozone).

In this method the ozone kills any bacteria, viruses, fungus, or molds infecting the open wound, increase blood flow to the wound, and stimulates the healing process. It has been documented that many a body part has been spared amputation through the application of ozone in this method.

High concentrations of ozone applied through bagging (60ug/ml – 90ug/ml) tend to have a sterilization effect on the wound, but if used for prolonged periods will have a negative effect on healing. Mid range ozone concentrations (30-40 ug/ml) will have a healing effect on the wounds. Therefore the protocol as suggested by German researchers is to begin with the infected wound at 75-90ug/ml for the sterilizing effect, and as the treatments begin to clear the wound of infection, to gradually drop the concentration towards 35ug/ml. This gradual drop in the concentration will maintain the sterility of the wound, and stimulate healing. Individual differences in this protocol are taken into account by watching the effect of the ozone on the wound, and the rate at which it closes.

Major Autohemotherapy

This procedure is performed only by trained professionals, usually only in a clinic setting. Major Autohemotherapy is the preferred method of many practitioners, and it is used in well over 150 diseases. In Germany, even the ambulances are equipped with ozone generators; if ozone is administered within 24 hours of a stroke, 95% of patients suffer no permanent paralysis.

The Major Autohemotherapy protocol obviously requires medical grade ozone with no contaminants. Ozone generators that produce ozone from ‘air’ should never be used for this protocol, even if they have been fitted with an oxygen tank. Only ozone generators designed to produce pure medical ozone should be used. This protocol requires standard blood administration equipment, such as a Blood Administration Set (transfusion line), butterfly needles, evacuated container (or empty saline bag), heparin, calcium, and 60 cc syringes. The procedure involves the removal of approximately 125 to 200cc of the patients blood. This blood is withdrawn into the evacuated bottle or into an empty saline bag. The bottle (or bag) is then hung upside down, and ozone gas (the same volume as the blood withdrawn) is infused into the blood. But at what concentration?

Professor Velio Bocci of Italy can be accredited with being a major influence in the world of ozone in that he has been researching ozone for over 30 years at the University of Sienna. His research has shown that greatest immune system stimulation (activation) effects occur when the ozone is introduced into the blood at a concentration of 78 ug/ml. His detailed research has displayed that this concentration of 78 ug/ml illicites the maximum cytokine production from the white blood cells. These cytokines enter the body when the blood is reintroduced to the patient, and in turn stimulate other white blood cells within the body to also release cytokines, inducing an immunostimulating effect that spreads through the body like a chain reaction. While lower concentrations of ozone can be used for Major Autohemotherapy, Bocci’s research clearly showed that cytokine production is maximized when the ozone is bubbled through the blood at 78 ug/ml..

In this procedure the trained professional constantly monitors the patient, and ensures the purity of the ozone gas, and the sterility of all equipment used. For the trained professional, this treatment is actually quite easy, and very safe for the patient.

Contact us to purchase equipment:


pyright 2011 :: Privacy


Identification of novel activity against Borrelia burgdorferi persisters using an FDA approved drug library.


Although antibiotic treatment for Lyme disease is effective in the majority of cases, especially during the early phase of the disease, a minority of patients suffer from post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome (PTLDS). It is unclear what mechanisms drive this problem, and although slow or ineffective killing of Borrelia burgdorferi has been suggested as an explanation, there is a lack of evidence that viable organisms are present in PTLDS. Although not a clinical surrogate, insight may be gained by examining stationary-phase in vitro Borrelia burgdorferi persisters that survive treatment with the antibiotics doxycycline and amoxicillin. To identify drug candidates that can eliminate B. burgdorferi persisters more effectively, we screened an Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drug library consisting of 1524 compounds against stationary-phase B. burgdorferi by using a newly developed high throughput SYBR Green I/propidium iodide (PI) assay. We identified 165 agents approved for use in other disease conditions that had more activity than doxycycline and amoxicillin against B. burgdorferi persisters. The top 27 drug candidates from the 165 hits were confirmed to have higher anti-persister activity than the current frontline antibiotics. Among the top 27 confirmed drug candidates from the 165 hits, daptomycin, clofazimine, carbomycin, sulfa drugs (e.g., sulfamethoxazole), and certain cephalosporins (e.g. cefoperazone) had the highest anti-persister activity. In addition, some drug candidates, such as daptomycin and clofazimine (which had the highest activity against non-growing persisters), had relatively poor activity or a high minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) against growing B. burgdorferi. Our findings may have implications for the development of a more effective treatment for Lyme disease and for the relief of long-term symptoms that afflict some Lyme disease patients.


Borrelia burgdorferi; FDA approved drug library; SYBR Green I; drug discovery; persisters

Med Hypotheses. 1998 Jan;50(1):67-80.

Selective compartmental dominance: an explanation for a noninfectious, multifactorial etiology for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), and a rationale for ozone therapy and other immune modulating therapies.


The most widely accepted etiological explanation for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) currently invokes an infectious model involving the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Because this infectious model has failed to meet any conventional criteria for establishing microbial causation, this theory still relies on the high, though not perfect, statistical correlation linking presence of HIV antibodies with patients diagnosed with, and at risk for the syndrome. Many scientists and clinicians now doubt the HIV theory, though, and propose instead a multifactorial causation similar to that seen in cancer and heart disease. In order to discard the HIV model, however, it is necessary to explain the high statistical correlation mentioned above. Recent studies involving cellular mediated immunity and cytokine modulation may explain this statistical relationship without the need to invoke infectious causation, by suggesting certain functional characteristics and feedback loops in the immune system which the author calls selective compartmental dominance (SCD). SCD provides a model in which chronic dominance of the humoral immune compartment secondary to chronic high-dose antigenic challenge results in chronic suppression of the cellular immune compartment. This model predicts that even HIV-negative members of the risk groups are susceptible to AIDS, assigns no special causal role for HIV in AIDS, and suggests a rational course of nontoxic therapy that can potentially reverse cases in the earlier stages.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]