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One of the many mysteries of lyme disease is why some people do not get better using the same protocols that others respond to so well.
Today we know that Borrelia can occur in different forms and hide in different locations in order to evade the immune system, the bodies primary method of attacking invading bacteria.
The organism changes show and moves into different tissues and compartments to adapt to its environment, and you can also change forms doing a killing aswell as whether the environment contains adequate nutrition to support its growth.
Lyme spirochetes and co infections are carried by ticks which are commonly found on mice deer foxes raccoons songbirds chipmunks and squirrels. They are transmitted in the zoonotic cycle, which means the ticks that have acquired the infection after feeding on an infected host then transmit it to humans.
One notable exception to this rule is Borrelia miyamotoi, in which the ticks do not always need to feed on an infected host and can transmit the infection directly to their offspring. This is particularly worrisome because it increases the risk of transmission of this Borrelial species, and the common two tiered diagnostic tests for lime Will not pick up this infection which is rapidly spreading.
Lyme bacteria first into the body during a tick bite in the classical corkscrew shape, which is the cell wall form. There are anywhere from 3 to 6 flagella at either end, allowing the bacterium to move spontaneously, propelling the organism through the bodies tissues.
In hostile environments of extreme temperature, hot or cold, or high or low acidity, the borrelia changes form, and a circular structure, or cyst is created. This protects it from being killed off by the immune system and allows the organism to survive, dormant, for long periods of time. From its dormant state it can reactivate later, when circumstances are more favourable for its survival. The organism can also penetrate very cells and enter the intracellular compartment, the area inside the cell wall that includes the nucleus and cytoplasm and contains all of the organelles that allow the cell to function metabolically. Like the cystic form, it allows the bacteria to hide from the immune system.
Finally, Borrelia can form biofilm film colonies: in which the cells adhere to each other and are embedded in a slimy substance made up of extracellular material of DNA, proteins, lipids, and sugar molecules as well as other large molecules. Biofilms allow the bacteria to communicate among themselves, Exchange DNA, and resist antibiotics through multiple mechanisms including efflux pumps. John Hopkins scientists in 2014 showed that Borrelia forms , persister cells which are a subpopulation of resistant cells that survive antibiotics.
The disease can spread throughout the body from the site of the initial bite, and even within 24 hours can you invade the central nervous system. The borrelia bacteria has a preference for certain areas, such as the eye, Brain tissue and glial cells, the heart, collagen, skeletal muscle fibres, and the synovial membrane that surrounds the joints. This explains why the most common lyme related inflammation occurs in those tissues, causing arthritis, carditis(inflammation of the heart), optic neuritis (inflammation in the optic nerve), iritis(inflammation in the anterior chamber of eye), meningitis, and encephalitis(inflammation in the sac surrounding the brain and in the brain tissue itself). Borrelia species that invade the brain are also being found in bio films in the central nervous system of those affected by Alzheimer’s disease.
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